Create a new Tax Rule: Magento > Stores >Tax Rules
Click "Add New Tax Rule"
Under "Additional Settings" click Add New Tax Class
Create a Tax Class called "Tax Exempt" and click the check mark.
Create a new Tax Rate called "Exempt"
Create a new Customer Group by going to Stores> Customer Groups and selecting "Add New Customer Group".
To assign the newly created group to customers navigate to Customers > All Customers and check the boxes for the customers you'd like to assign.
In the top left, select Actions and choose Assign a customer group.
Select Tax Exempt.
Now the customer(s) you selected should be assigned to the tax exempt group.
Once this setup has been completed run a test transaction for this customer to ensure that they are NOT charged tax when shipping to a state that you would normally be charging tax for.